Sunday, August 16, 2009
Tuesday, July 21, 2009
A lower glycemic index suggests slower rates of digestion and absorption of the foods' carbohydrates and may also indicate greater extraction from the liver and periphery of the products of carbohydrate digestion. A lower glycemic response usually equates to a lower insulin demand (but not always) and may improve long-term blood glucose control and blood lipids. The insulin index may also be useful, as it provides a direct measure of the insulin response to a food.
The glycemic index of a food is defined as the area under the two hour blood glucose response curve (AUC) following the ingestion of a fixed portion of carbohydrate (usually 50 g). The AUC of the test food is divided by the AUC of the standard (either glucose or white bread, giving two different definitions) and multiplied by 100.
The effect on blood glucose from a high versus low glycemic index carbohydrateThe average GI value is calculated from data collected in 10 human subjects. Both the standard and test food must contain an equal amount of available carbohydrate. The result gives a relative ranking for each tested food.
The current validated methods use glucose as the reference food, giving it a glycemic index value of 100 by definition. This has the advantages of being universal and producing maximum GI values of approximately 100. White bread can also be used as a reference food, giving a different set of GI values (if white bread = 100, then glucose ≈ 140). For people whose staple carbohydrate source is white bread, this has the advantage of conveying directly whether replacement of the dietary staple with a different food would result in faster or slower blood glucose response. The disadvantages with this system are that the reference food is not well-defined and the GI scale is culture dependent.
GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows:
Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less most fruits and vegetables (except potatoes, watermelon), grainy breads, pasta, legumes/pulses, milk, products extremely low in carbohydrates (fish, eggs, meat, some cheeses, nuts, cooking oil), brown rice
Medium GI 56 - 69 whole wheat products, basmati rice, sweet potato, table sugar, most white rices (e.g. jasmine)
High GI 70 and above corn flakes, baked potatoes, watermelon, croissants, white bread, extruded breakfast cereals (e.g. Rice Krispies), straight glucose (100)
A low GI food will release glucose more slowly and steadily. A high GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose levels and is suitable for energy recovery after endurance exercise or for a person experiencing hypoglycemia.
The glycemic effect of foods depends on a number of factors such as the type of starch (amylose versus amylopectin), physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food, fat and protein content of the food and organic acids or their salts in the meal — adding vinegar for example, will lower the GI. The presence of fat or soluble dietary fiber can slow the gastric emptying rate, thus lowering the GI. Unrefined breads with higher amounts of fiber generally have a lower GI value than white breads. Many brown breads, however, are treated with enzymes to soften the crust, which makes the starch more accessible (high GI).
While adding butter or oil will lower the GI of a meal, the GI ranking does not change. That is, with or without additions, there is still a higher blood glucose curve after white bread than after a low GI bread such as pumpernickel.
The glycemic index can be applied only to foods with a reasonable carbohydrate content, as the test relies on subjects consuming enough of the test food to yield about 50 g of available carbohydrate. Many fruits and vegetables (but not potatoes) contain very little carbohydrate per serving, and the average person is not likely to eat 50 g of carbohydrate from these foods. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index and a low glycemic load. This also applies to carrots, which were originally and incorrectly reported as having a high GI. Alcoholic beverages have been reported to have low GI values, but it should be noted that beer has a moderate GI. Recent studies have shown that the consumption of an alcoholic drink prior to a meal reduces the GI of the meal by approximately 15%. Moderate alcohol consumption more than 12 hours prior to a test does not affect the GI.
Many modern diets rely on the glycemic index, including the South Beach Diet, Transitions by Market America and NutriSystem Nourish Diet.
Several lines of recent scientific evidence have shown that individuals who followed a low GI diet over many years were at a significantly lower risk for developing both type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease than others. High blood glucose levels or repeated glycemic "spikes" following a meal may promote these diseases by increasing oxidative stress to the vasculature and also by the direct increase in insulin levels. In the past, postprandial hyperglycemia has been considered a risk factor associated mainly with diabetes. However, more recent evidence shows that it also presents an increased risk for atherosclerosis in the non-diabetic population.
Conversely, there are regions such as Peru and Asia where people eat high-glycemic index foods such as potatoes and high GI rices, but without a high level of obesity or diabetes. The high consumption of legumes in South America and fresh fruit and vegetables in Asia likely lowers the glycemic effect in these individuals. The mixing of high and low GI carbohydrates produces moderate GI values.
A study from the University of Sydney in Australia suggests that having a breakfast of white bread and sugar-rich cereals, over time, may make a person susceptible to diabetes, heart disease, and even cancer.
The glycemic index is supported by leading international health organisations including the American Diabetes Association.
Recent animal research provides compelling evidence that high GI carbohydrate is associated with increased risk of obesity. In human trials, it is typically difficult to separate the effects from GI and other potentially confounding factors such as fiber content, palatability, and compliance. In one study, male rats were split into high and low GI groups over 18 weeks while mean body weight was maintained. Rats fed the high GI diet were 71% fatter and had 8% less lean body mass than the low GI group. Postmeal glycemia and insulin levels were significantly higher and plasma triglycerides were threefold greater in the high GI fed rats. Furthermore, pancreatic islet cells suffered "severely disorganised architecture and extensive fibrosis." The evidence in this study showed that continued consumption of high glycemic index carbohydrates would likely have led to the development of severe metabolic abnormalities.
If a person consumes 50% of his calories from carbohydrates, the glycemic index can enable him to consume the same number of calories and have lower, more stable glucose and insulin levels. The use of the glycemic index, however, is limited by several factors:
The glycemic index does not take into account other factors besides glycemic response, such as insulin response, which is measured by the insulin index and can be more appropriate in representing the effects from some food contents other than carbohydrates.
The glycemic index is significantly altered by the type of food, its ripeness, processing, the length of storage, cooking methods, and its variety (white potatoes are a notable example, ranging from moderate to very high GI even within the same variety).
The glycemic response is different from one person to another, and even in the same person from day to day, depending on blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and other factors.
The number of grams of carbohydrate impacts blood sugar levels more than the glycemic index. Lowering glycemic index leads to small improvements in A1Cs, but consuming fewer calories, losing weight, and carbohydrate counting would benefit A1Cs more. Carbohydrate impacts glucose levels most profoundly, and two foods with the same carbohydrate content are generally comparable in their effects on blood sugar. A food with a low glycemic index may have a high carbohydrate content or vice versus; this can be accounted for with the glycemic load. Consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and calculating carbohydrate intake would produce the most stable blood sugar levels.
Most of the values on the glycemic index do not show the impact on glucose levels after two hours. Some diabetics may still have elevated levels after four hours.
1 DJ Jenkins et al. (1981). "Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange." Am J Clin Nutr 34; 362-366
2 Brouns et al. (2005). "Glycaemic index methodology." Nutrition Research Reviews 18; 145-171
3 http://www.norden.org/en/publications/publications/2005-589 Nordic Council of Ministers: Glycemic Index, TemaNord2005:589, Copenhagen 2005.
4 Brand-Miller et al. (2005). The Low GI Diet Revolution: The Definitive Science-based Weight Loss Plan. Marlowe & Company. New York, NY
5 Brand-Miller, in press
6 Godley R, et al. (2008). Eur J Clin Nutrisystem
7 Temelkova-Kurktschiev et al. (2000). "Postchallenge plasma glucose and glycemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level." Diabetes Care 2000 Dec;23(12):1830-4
8 Balkau et al. (1998) "High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and the Helsinki Policemen Study." Diabetes Care 1998 Mar;21(3):360-7
9 White bread breakfast unhealthy? 10 Mar 2008, 1119 hrs IST, ANI - Science - Health & Science - The Times of India
10 Sheard et al. (2004). "Dietary carbohydrate (amount and type) in the prevention and management of diabetes: a statement by the american diabetes association." Diabetes Care;27(9):2266-71
11 Pawlak et al. (2004). "Effects of dietary glycaemic index on adiposity, glucose homoeostasis, and plasma lipids in animals." Lancet;28364(9436):778-85
12 David Mendosa. Insulin Index. July 13, 2003.
13 GI Database.
14 a b c d Janine Freeman, RD, CDE. The Glycemic Index debate: Does the type of carbohydrate really matter?
15 a b The Glycemic Index and Diabetes. Joslin Diabetes Center.
Tuesday, July 14, 2009
TEACHER: Tommy, do you see the grass outside?
TEACHER: Go outside and look up and see if you can see the sky.
TOMMY: Okay. (He returned a few minutes later) Yes, I saw the sky.
TEACHER: Did you see God?
TEACHER: That's my point. We can't see God because he isn't there. He doesn't exist.
A little girl spoke up and wanted to ask the boy some questions. The teacher agreed and the little girl asked the boy: Tommy, do you see the tree outside?
LITTLE GIRL: Tommy do you see the grass outside?
TOMMY: Yessssss (getting tired of the questions by this time).
LITTLE GIRL: Did you see the sky?
LITTLE GIRL: Tommy, do you see the teacher?
LITTLE GIRL: Do you see her brain?
LITTLE GIRL: Then according to what we were taught today in school, she must not have one!
"FOR WE WALK BY FAITH, NOT BY SIGHT"
Follow The Right Man~!
Monday, July 6, 2009
NUTRILITE farming practices – There are over 6,400 acres of NUTRILITE farmland, where plants are grown and harvested in accordance with nature – using sustainable, chemical-free methods.
NUTRILITE processing techniques – NUTRILITE plants are dehydrated and processed within hours of harvest, using special methods and state-of-the-art equipment to capture nature's valuable nutrients.
NUTRILITE Measurable quality – Good Manufacturing Practices and a team of quality-assurance experts ensure high quality standards for the NUTRILITE brand – so that the supplements produced each month meet precise specifications for quality, potency, size, weight, and hardness.
NUTRILITE Leading-edge science – The search for new concentrates and better formulations remains a constant quest for scientists and researchers of the NUTRILITE brand. Their innovative work remains the driving force that keeps NUTRILITE products at the forefront of the nutrition industry.
NUTRILITE "Just-in-time" freshness – Instead of storing our products for months in warehouses, they are carefully packaged and shipped soon after production, to maintain freshness. No other supplements are grown, harvested, processed, and shipped in this way.
NUTRILITE FARMS - In Cooperation with NatureNUTRILITE™ is the only global vitamin and mineral brand to grow, harvest and process plants on their own certified organic farms. Wherever we grow the ingredients used in NUTRILITE products, the crops are grown in accordance with nature.
NUTRILITE™ avoid the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.
NUTRILITE™ replenish the soil, rather than depleting it.
NUTRILITE™ use natural, environmentally-friendly methods to control weeds, insects, and other harmful predators.
WE NEVER COMPROMISE ON QUALITY
At the NUTRILITE™ manufacturing facility, our standards of quality in manufacturing are as much a part of our company culture as our natural farming practices. Clean rooms and well-cared-for equipment are one measure of excellence; another is the level of expertise demonstrated by Nutrilite staff throughout the manufacturing process.
Plants are harvested at their nutritional peak and transported as quickly as possible to our dehydration facility. The concentration process uses specialized equipment in a state-of-the-art facility to dehydrate, mill, and extract nature's richest nutrients from the plants – creating the world's finest nutritional concentrates. Each batch of concentrate powder is tested to ensure it is free of contaminants and of proper potency. Computer-controlled scales measure the exact weight and amount of each concentrate powder. The various powders are then blended into a single, uniform mixture. The powder blend is compressed into tablets, coated with a special solution for easier swallowing, and inspected closely for cracks or chips. Finished tablets are sealed in specially-designed containers to maintain freshness.
Tuesday, March 17, 2009
Sunday, March 15, 2009
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in the energy-producing center of the cell known as the mitochondria. CoQ10 is involved in the making of an important molecule known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP serves as the cell's major energy source and drives a number of biological processes including muscle contraction and the production of protein. CoQ10 also works as an antioxidant.
Antioxidants are substances that scavenge free radicals, damaging compounds in the body that alter cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death. Free radicals occur naturally in the body, but environmental toxins (including ultraviolet light, radiation, cigarette smoking, and air pollution) can also increase the number of these damaging particles. Free radicals are believed to contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of health problems including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as CoQ10 can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.
CoQ10 boosts energy, enhances the immune system, and acts as an antioxidant. Clinical research suggests that using coenzyme Q10 supplements alone or in combination with other drug therapies and nutritional supplements may help prevent or treat some of the following conditions:
Researchers believe that the beneficial effect of CoQ10 in the prevention and treatment of heart disease is due to its ability to improve energy production in cells, inhibit blood clot formation, and act as an antioxidant. One important clinical study, for example, found that people who received daily CoQ10 supplements within 3 days of a heart attack were significantly less likely to experience subsequent heart attacks and chest pain. In addition, these same patients were less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not receive the supplements.
High blood pressure
Several clinical studies involving small numbers of people suggest that CoQ10 may lower blood pressure. However, it may take 4 - 12 weeks before any beneficial effect is observed. More research with greater numbers of people is needed to assess the value of CoQ10 in the treatment of high blood pressure.
Levels of CoQ10 tend to be lower in people with high cholesterol compared to healthy individuals of the same age. In addition, certain cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins (such as atorvastatin, cerivastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin) appear to deplete natural levels of CoQ10 in the body. Taking CoQ10 supplements can correct the deficiency caused by statin medications without affecting the medication's positive effects on cholesterol levels.
Heart damage caused by chemotherapy
Several clinical studies suggest that CoQ10 may help prevent heart damage caused by certain chemotherapy drugs (namely adriamycin or other athracycline medications). More clinical studies are needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of CoQ10 in preventing heart damage in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Clinical research indicates that introducing CoQ10 prior to heart surgery, including bypass surgery and heart transplantation, can reduce damage caused by free radicals, strengthen heart function, and lower the incidence of irregular heart beat (arrhythmias) during the recovery phase.
Studies of women with breast cancer suggest that CoQ10 supplements (in addition to conventional treatment and a nutritional regimen including other antioxidants and essential fatty acids) may shrink tumors, reduce pain associated with the condition, and cause partial remission in some individuals. It is important to recognize that the beneficial effects these women experienced cannot be attributed to CoQ10 alone. Additional antioxidants used in these studies include vitamins C, E, and selenium.
Periodontal (gum) disease
Gum disease is a widespread problem that is associated with swelling, bleeding, pain, and redness of the gums. Clinical studies have reported that people with gum disease tend to have low levels of CoQ10 in their gums. In a few clinical studies involving small numbers of subjects, CoQ10 supplements caused faster healing and tissue repair. CoQ10 is used in mouth rinse products for this condition. Additional studies in humans are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of CoQ10 when used together with traditional therapy for periodontal disease.
Preliminary clinical studies also suggest that CoQ10 may:
- Improve immune function in individuals with immune deficiencies (such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS) and chronic infections (such as yeast, bacteria, and viral infections)
- Increase sperm motility leading to enhanced fertility
- Be used as part of the treatment for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease
- Reduce damage from stroke
- Boost athletic performance
- Enhance physical activity in people with fatigue syndromes
- Improve exercise tolerance in individuals with muscular dystrophy
- Improve symptoms of tinnitus, or ringing in the ears
- Be beneficial in cosmetics for healthy skin
- Delay the aging process and increase longevity
Clinical research in all of these areas is underway to determine whether CoQ10 can be safeLy and effectively used in people with these health problems and needs.
Primary dietary sources of CoQ10 include oily fish (such as salmon and tuna), organ meats (such as liver), and whole grains. Most individuals obtain sufficient amounts of CoQ10 through a balanced diet, but supplementation may be useful for individuals with particular health conditions (see Uses section) or those taking certain medications.
How to Take It:
Use of coenzyme Q10 in children under 18 years of age is only recommended under the supervision of a health care provider.
For adults 19 years and older: The recommended dose for CoQ10 supplementation is 30 - 200 mg daily.
Coenzyme Q10 is fat-soluble. Also, taking coenzyme Q10 at night may help with the body's ability to use it.
Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, dietary supplements should be taken only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.
Coenzyme Q10 appears to be generally safe with no significant side effects, except occasional stomach upset. However, the safety of CoQ10 supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding is unknown and, therefore, should not be used during that time until more information is available.
Sources : University of Maryland Medical Centre.